Health in America
Health in America
Health in America

Credits

Children washing hands, courtesy of West Virginia and Regional History Collection, West Virginia University. New York City school milk program, courtesy of the La Guardia and Wagner Archives, CUNY, La Guardia Collection

Chancellor's Letter

All photographs courtesy of CUNY.

Milestones

Dr. Mände Holford, courtesy of CUNY; Cancer treatment, courtesy of Professor Timothy Secomb, University of Arizona; Radioactive phosphorous experiment, courtesy of The Ohio State University Photo Archives; The United Society of Shakers, courtesy of the Collections of the Maine Historical Society; Blood pressure test, courtesy of Jaslyn Gilbert for the University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh; Nurses commencement, photograph by Paul Parker, courtesy of the Medical Center Archives of New York-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell; Inspection of teeth and finger nails, photograph by Lewis Hine, courtesy of the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, National Child Labor Committee Collection, LC-DIG-nclc-00667; Diphtheria Inoculations, courtesy of the Pittsburgh City Photographer Collection, 715.3011301.cp, Archives Service Center, University of Pittsburgh; Hartford flood, courtesy of The Connecticut Historical Society; Brain operation, courtesy of the University of California, San Francisco; Student nurse, courtesy of the Elwyn B. Robinson Department of Special Collections, the University of North Dakota.

Hawaiian chemical corps, courtesy of the University of Hawaii at Manoa Library; Cottolene, courtesy of the Litchfield Collection on the History of Fatty Material, Hagley Museum and Library; Dr. Klapper and patient, courtesy of the UAB Archives, University of Alabama at Birmingham; Photograph of Henrietta Lacks and her husband, courtesy of Crown Publishing/Random House Inc.; Pistol-packing doctor, courtesy of the State Library and Archives of Florida; Taos County health association, courtesy of the Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, FSA/OWI Collection, LC-USW3-018031-C Aeroplane ambulance, courtesy of The National Museum of the History of Medicine, Otis Historical Archives, AFIP, Reeve Collection 63082; Drawing of the Bloomingdale Asylum by A. Dick, courtesy of the Medical Center Archives of New York-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell; Chinatown health fair, courtesy of Corky Lee; Horse-drawn ambulance, courtesy of the Ehrman Medical Library, Bellevue Hospital Center, New York University Medical Center.

Dr. Joseph Muhler, courtesy of the Indiana University Archives (52-737); Nurse measuring blood pressure, courtesy of Westchester Community College, SUNY; NIH Rocky Mountain Laboratory, courtesy of The National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health; White coat ceremony, courtesy of the Mount Sinai Medical Center, N.Y.C.; Gulf of Mexico oil spill, AP photo; Dr. Ayer's, courtesy of the New York Academy of Medicine Library; Clinical lecture, courtesy of The Legacy Center, Women in Medicine, Drexel University, College of Medicine, Archives and Special Collection; Nurse, courtesy of the Eastern Kentucky University Archives; Dissecting ticket, courtesy of the UAB Archives, University of Alabama at Birmingham.

Homer G. Phillips Hospital, courtesy of the Becker Medical Library, Washington University School of Medicine; Photograph of HeLa Cells, courtesy of Florida State University; S.S. Polio, courtesy of the Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum; Optometry patient, courtesy of the UAB Archives, University of Alabama at Birmingham; Medical examination of boy, courtesy of the West Virginia and Regional History Collection, West Virginia University Libraries. Student nurses, courtesy of the University of Arkansas; Calisthenics class, courtesy of the Michigan State University Archives and Historical Collections; Blood transfusion, courtesy of the Ehrman Medical Library, Bellevue Hospital, New York University Medical Center; New York Hospital drawing by G. Hayward, courtesy of the Medical Center Archives of New York-Presbyterian Weill/Cornell Hospital.

Children brushing teeth, courtesy of the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZ62-94390, F.P. Burke, photographer; 52; Dr. Lesley Davenport photo, courtesy of CUNY; Ether bottle, courtesy of the Bristol-Myers Squibb Archives; Scott's Run, WV, courtesy of the West Virginia and Regional History Collection, West Virginia University Libraries; Mary Fletcher Hospital, courtesy of Special Collections, Bailey/Howe Library, University of Vermont; Nutrition exhibit, courtesy of the University of Iowa College of Public Health; Students using microscopes, courtesy of the Western History Collections, University of Oklahoma; Health Spa, Minnesota, im169485, courtesy of the Tyomies Society Records, Box 4, Immigration History Research Center, University of Minnesota; Playground, courtesy of the Lorain Public Library, Lorain, Ohio, National Tube Settlement Collection; Broussard ambulance, courtesy of the Bailey (Bob) Studios Photographic Archives, e_bb_4930; The Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin.

Spraying apple trees, courtesy of Colorado State University, Archives and Special Collections; Penn State University ambulance crew, courtesy of Penn State University Archives; Influenza Hospital Camp Funston, KS courtesy of the Otis Historical Archives, National Museum of the History of Medicine, AFIP; Idaho health care facilities, courtesy of The National Library of Medicine; Images from the History of Medicine; Cancer cured at home, courtesy of the United States Food and Drug Administration History Office, Silver Spring, Maryland; African-American family receiving vaccinations against typhoid fever, courtesy of The National Library of Medicine, Images from the History of Medicine; Dental clinic, courtesy of the Frederick W. Kent Collections of Photographs, University Archives, Department of Special Collections, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa; Red Cross poster, courtesy of the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZC4-7782.

North Carolina needs more doctors, courtesy of the University of North Carolina, School of Medicine, Chapel Hill; Portland playground, courtesy of the Oregon Health and Science University Historical Collections and Archives; Battle Creek Sanitarium (BL000156), courtesy of the John Harvey Kellogg Papers, Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan; "Salads for Health," Trade Catalogs and Pamphlets, Oils and Fats, courtesy of the Hagley Museum and Library; Health center, Tygart Valley Homesteads, West Virginia, courtesy of the Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, FSA/OWI Photograph Collection, LC-USF33-T01-001397-M2, photograph by John Vachon; Bridgeton, New Jersey, courtesy of the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, FSA/OWI Photograph Collection, LC-USF34-083194-C, photograph by John Collier; Christmas Seals, courtesy of the The National Library of Medicine, Images from the History of Medicine; Pugh Drugs, courtesy of KansasMemory.org, Kansas State Historical Society; Fluorescent wreath, courtesy of the University of California, San Diego.

Motorized ambulance, courtesy of the Ehrman Medical Library, Bellevue Hospital Center, New York University Medical Center; Army nurses, courtesy of The National Library of Medicine, Images from the History of Medicine; W.P.A. Federal Art Project, District 4, poster courtesy of the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZ2-5369; 1930's biology lab image, SC State Historical Collections and Archives Department, Miller F. Whittaker Library, South Carolina State University, Orangeburg, SC 29117; W.C.T.U. hospital, courtesy of the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division; Red Cross canteen workers, courtesy of the Joseph Stimson Collection, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming; E.P.A., AP Photo/Debra Reid; Dental students, courtesy of the UAB Archives, University of Alabama at Birmingham; Prenatal class, courtesy of The National Library of Medicine, Images from the History of Medicine; Post-polio patient occupational therapy, courtesy of The Ohio State University Photo Archives.

Shack adjacent to steel mills, courtesy of the Pittsburgh City Photographer Collection, 715.181014, Archives Service Center, University of Pittsburgh; Student dieticians, courtesy of California State University, Northridge; Iron lung, courtesy of The Ohio State University Photo Archives; Midwife with baby, courtesy of the State Archives of Florida; Incubator, courtesy of the University of Rhode Island; Civil War surgeons, courtesy of the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, cwpb03679; Virginia Apgar, courtesy of the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, New York World-Telegram and The Sun Newspaper Photograph Collection, World Journal Tribune photograph by Al Ravenna; Milk station, courtesy of the Irene Kaufman Settlement House Collection, 7812.151 IKS, Archives Service Center, University of Pittsburgh; Professor with students, courtesy of Purdue University Archives and Special Collections; Trachoma clinic, courtesy of The National Library of Medicine, Images from the History of Medicine.

Emergency hospital, courtesy of the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZC2-6215; Love Canal, courtesy of aegweb.com (Association of Environmental and Engineering Geologists); Sunview room for children, courtesy of the Ehrman Library of the Bellevue Hospital/NYU Medical Center; E.P.A. clean-up site, courtesy of the Still Picture Records Section, Special Media Archives Services Division, National Archives at College Park, MD.; Yakutat health clinic, courtesy of the Alaska State Library, P55-524, Fhoki Kayamori Photograph Collection; Celluloid eye glasses, courtesy of the The National Library of Medicine, Images from the History of Medicine; South Dakota cabin, courtesy of The National Library of Medicine, Images from the History of Medicine; Nursing students in class, ESU003.004.008, courtesy of Emporia State University Newman Division of Nursing, Emporia State University Archives, Emporia, KS; Food chemistry laboratory, courtesy of Purdue University Archives and Special Collections.

Health Insurance "The Protection Every Family Needs Most," Copyright 2009 BlueCross and BlueShield Association, an association of independent, locally owned Blue Cross and Blue Shield Plans; President Obama signing health care bill, courtesy of The New York Times; social security poster, courtesy of the United States Social Security Administration, Office of the Historian; Obama signature, official White House photo by Chuck Kennedy; Rainy day, American Labor Legislation Review; ACT UP New York, Records, Manuscripts and Archives Division, The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundation.

Public Health Croton Water celebration, courtesy of the Division of Home and Community Life, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Harry T. Peters, "America on Stone" Lithography Collection; Health Wanted poster, courtesy of the University of Minnesota Libraries Archives and Special Collections; Horse-drawn garbage truck, courtesy of the University of Washington Libraries. Special Collections Division, James P. Lee Photograph Collection 120, PH Coll 294; Children washing hands, courtesy of the West Virginia and the Regional History Collection, West Virginia University; Second-hand smoke, courtesy of the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene.

Women Mammograms poster courtesy of the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division; Imperial Valley, CA. nurse, courtesy of the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, FSA/OWI Collection, LC-USF34-019198-E, photograph by Dorothea Lange; Dr. Leona Baumgartner, courtesy of the La Guardia and Wagner Archives, CUNY, Queens Collection.

Industrial Hazards Bethlehem mine, courtesy of the West Virginia and Regional History Collection, West Virginia University Libraries; Radium girls, courtesy of Tim Trumble, Arizona State University; Mississippi spinning room, courtesy of the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-DIG-nclc-01873, Photo by Lewis Hine.

Nursing Administering medicine, courtesy of the Pittsburgh City Photographer Collection, 715.211636.CP, Archives Service Center, University of Pittsburgh; U.S. Cadet Nurse Corps, published by the U.S. Public Health Service Federal Security Agency, held by the Hennepin County Libraries; La Guardia Community College, CUNY nursing students, courtesy of La Guardia Community College, CUNY, photograph by Paul Katz; American Indian nurse, courtesy of the W.K. Kellogg Foundation; African-American volunteer nurses, Washington, DC, courtesy of the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, FSA/OWI Collection, LC-USE6-D-009010; Frontier nurse service, courtesy of the University of Louisville Photographic Archives, 1994.18.0546; Nurses with infant, courtesy of the Eastern Kentucky University Archives

Hospitals Hospital room during 1965 blackout, courtesy of Archives and Special Collections, Columbia University Health Sciences Library, Photograph by Elizabeth Wilcox; Robert C. Hinckley painting, "First Operation Under Ether," courtesy of The Boston Medical Library in the Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine. Cleveland Clinic surgery, courtesy of Cleveland State University, Michael Schwartz Library, Special Collections.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases AIDS News, courtesy of People of Color Against AIDS Network, Seattle, WA.; Condom crusader, courtesy of The Penn State University Archives; Syphilis poster, courtesy of the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZC2-5379; Penicillin cures, courtesy of The National Library of Medicine, Images from the History of the Public Health Service; Highway sign against venereal disease, courtesy of Rare Books, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library, Duke University.

Children Children's Year poster created by F. Luis Mora, courtesy of the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZC4-9867; "Poverty Nurse," courtesy of Magnum Photos, photo by Dennis Stock; Mayor La Guardia with baby, and New York City school milk program, courtesy of the La Guardia and Wagner Archives, CUNY, La Guardia Collection.

Unions Mount Sinai laundry workers, and Max Cobarrubia, courtesy of the National Union of Hospital and Healthcare Employees Local 1199 Archives, Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University; local 1199 workers on strike, courtesy of the Mount Sinai Archives; Local 420 workers, AFSCME, courtesy of the Tamiment Library, New York University; Chinese Hospital workers courtesy of the Walter P. Reuther Library, Service Employees International Union: Common Gallery, Wayne State University.

Fundraising Mayor Wagner and Marie La Guardia photos, courtesy of the La Guardia and Wagner Archives, CUNY; Elvis Presley, AP Photo; Jonas Salk, courtesy of The National Library of Medicine, Images from the History of Medicine; Avon walk for breast cancer, AP Photo.

Patent Medicines "Dr. Caldwell's Syrup Pepsin: the Gateway to Health," courtesy of the University of Louisville Archives and Records Center; Cocaine toothache drops, courtesy of The National Library of Medicine, Images from the History of Medicine; Patent Medicines in Wyoming, courtesy of the Wyoming State Archives, Department of State Parks and Cultural Resources.

Nutrition "Avoid Junk Food" mural photograph, courtesy of Tim Drescher; Health fair in the Bronx, courtesy of the La Guardia and Wagner Archives, CUNY, NYCHA Collection; Dr. Elena Rios, courtesy of CUNY.

War Soldier receiving plasma in Sicily, courtesy of The National Museum of Health and Medicine, AFIP,SC 178198; "Fly Is As Deadly As A Bomber," courtesy of the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, WPA Poster Collection, LC-USZC2-5437, Robert Muchley, artist; 8th Evacuation Hospital, courtesy of the University of Virginia Visual History Collection (prints20553), Special Collections, University of Virginia Library.

Back Cover Fly Bomber, see January 2012; Salads for Health, see Milestones, page 8; Lucky Strike advertisement, accessed at http://lane.stanford.edu/tobacco/index.html "Not a Cough in a Carload: Images from the Tobacco Industry Campaign to Hide the Haxards of Smoking," curated by Robert K. Jackler, MD, Lane Medical Library, Stanford University School of Medicine, Red Cross poster, see Milestones, page 7. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene.